Where is Pattachitra done?

This traditional art form from Odisha draws heavily from Indian mythology. Its name translates to "cloth" and "picture" and the base used for painting is integral to the art form. This painting technique originated in the Puri district of the State.

Pattachitra is a disciplined form of art and come with a set of rules and restrictions. A floral border is a must in Pattachitra paintings, and so is the use of natural colours, restricting them to a single tone. This creates a distinct look and feel that is typical to Pattachitra and cannot be replicated.

The lines are bold and clean, and sharp. Generally, there are no landscapes, perspectives, and distant views. All the incidents are seen in close juxtaposition. The Pattachitra style is a mix of both folk and classical elements.

With the passage of time, the art of Pattachitra has gone through a commendable transition and the chitrakars have painted on palm leaves and tussar silk. Pattachitra are now being painted on sarees, bags, wall hangings and even on showpieces. However, this kind of innovativeness has never proved to be a hindrance in their customary depiction of figures and the use of colours, which has remained intact throughout generations.

Credit : World Art Community

Picture Credit : Google

Which state is famous for Kalamkari painting?

You may have seen this traditional painting technique several times on garments, and might have even worn one of them. This laborious form of painting from Andhra Pradesh, which was once influenced by Persian art, usually has textile as its base. Traditionally, it has religious motifs and only organic dyes are used. It has two main approaches - the Srikalahasti style and Machilipatnam style.

In ancient times, groups of singers, musicians and painters, called chitrakattis, moved village to village to tell the village dwellers, the great stories of Hindu mythology. They illustrated their accounts using large bolts of canvas painted on the spot with simple means and dyes extracted from plants. In the same way, one found in the Hindu temples large panels of kalamkari depicting the episodes of Indian mythology, similar to the stained glasses of the Christian cathedrals.

As an art form it found its peak in the wealthy Golconda sultanate, Hyderabad, in the Middle Ages. The Mughals who patronized this craft in the Coromandel and Golconda province called the practitioners of this craft "qualamkars", from which the term "kalamkari" evolved.

Kalamkari art has been practiced by many families in Andhra Pradesh and over the generations has constituted their livelihood. Kalamkari had a certain decline, then it was revived in India and abroad for its craftsmanship. Since the 18th century the British liked the decorative element for clothing.

Credit : Unnati Skills

Picture Credit : Google

What is meant by tribal art?

This tribal art form from Maharashtra is used a medium by the tribe to convey their customs and lifestyle. It is traditionally painted in the form of a mural and has motifs such as stick human figures, markets, and animals. Conventionally, the paintings are made using ground rice and not paint. The consistent repetition of motifs and patterns stand out.

Collection of tribal arts has historically been inspired by the Western myth of the “noble savage”, and lack of cultural context has been a challenge with the Western mainstream public’s perception of tribal arts. In the 19th century, non-western art was not seen by mainstream Western art professional as being as art at all. The art world perception of tribal arts is becoming less paternalistic, as indigenous and non-indigenous advocates have struggled for more objective scholarship of tribal art. Before Post-Modernism emerged in the 1960s, art critics approached tribal arts from a purely formalist approach, that is, responding only to the visual elements of the work and disregarding historical context, symbolism, or the artist’s intention.

Major exhibitions of tribal arts in the late 19th through mid-20th centuries exposed the Western art world to non-Western art. Major exhibitions included the Museum of Modern Art’s 1935 Africa Negro Art and 1941 Indian Art of the United States. Exposure to tribal arts provide inspiration to many modern artists, notably Expressionists, Cubists, and Surrealists, notably Surrealist Max Ernst. Cubist painter, Pablo Picasso stated that “primitive sculpture has never been surpassed.”

Credit : Cultural Anthropology 

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What’s the definition of orchestra?

ORCHESTRA

An orchestra is a large group of instrumental musicians playing together under the direction of a conductor. Orchestras usually include four sections: percussion, brass, woodwinds, and strings. Players of similar instruments sit together, with the conductor keeping time up front.

  1. PERCUSSION: These instruments make sounds when struck, and include items that can be tuned to different notes (glockenspiels and xylophones) as well as those which cannot (drums, cymbals, and triangles).
  2. BRASS: Blowing air through hollow brass tubes produces sound in instruments such as trumpets and French horns. The note is changed by pressing down valves.
  3. LOW BRASS: Trombones, bass trombones, and tubas play the middle to lower brass notes in the orchestra. The trombone has a slide that moves up and down to change the note. The tuba plays the lowest notes, which boom out from its bell-shaped end.
  4. WOODWINDS: This section of the orchestra includes piccolos, flutes, clarinets, bass clarinets, oboes, English horns, bassoons, and contrabassoons. Players blow air over a hole or through a reed to make notes.
  5. TIMPANI: These percussion instruments are giant copper bowls with skin-like heads struck by wool-topped sticks. They are also called kettledrums.
  6. HARP: A harp has a triangle-shaped wooden frame with 47 strings attached. The harpist plays the high notes on thin strings and the low notes on thicker ones.
  7. VIOLIN: There are more violins than any other instrument in the orchestra, and it is the smallest member of the string section. Players make notes by moving a bow across its strings.
  8. STRINGS: The strings often carry the melody (tune), and there are more string instruments than any other type in the orchestra. The section includes violins, violas, cellos, double bass, and harps.
  9. CONDUCTOR: The conductor stands on a raised platform in front of the players. The conductor’s main tasks are to lead the orchestra and keep everyone in time by waving a baton to the beat of the music.

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How important are the types of dances in the world?

DANCE

Energetic or graceful, dancers use athletic skill and flexibility to perform a series of movements, often in time to music. Dancing is a form of expression that may be a type of performing art, part of a special ritual, or a fun social activity. The earliest dancers used movement to worship gods and spirits and to act out stories. In performances, dancers often follow a pre-planned series of steps and movements devised by a choreographer.

BALLET: Ballet is a theatrical dance with graceful moves. Dancers undergo rigorous training and wear special hard-toed ballet shoes in order to dance en pointe - on the tip of their toes.

DISCO: In the 1970s, pop songs with strong dance beats ruled the airwaves and people gathered in clubs to disco dance. Some dances had set steps; others were created by the dancers themselves, perhaps inspired by the film Saturday Night Fever.

CHINESE DRAGON DANCE: In this ceremonial dance, dating back to the Han Dynasty (206 BCE-220 CE), a team of performers carries a colourful dragon, held up with poles. They lift and lower the poles to make the dragon dance. This dance is a key part of Chinese New Year celebrations.

BHARATANATYAM: In ancient times, Hindu temple dancers in south India performed a set of moves and postures to tell the stories of the gods. These evolved into the Bharatanatyam dance style. In this dance, certain poses - especially hand gestures -are held to represent different meanings.

TANGO: This dramatic dance for couples began as a street dance in Argentina and Uruguay during the mid-1800s. With hands tightly clasped, dancers either face each other, or look in the same direction, as they move to the beat. Tango is also the name for the music associated with the dance.

CAN-CAN: This high-kicking, cartwheeling dance began in Paris in the 1830s, and was originally for couples. French dance troupes soon took up the can-can in music halls, where chorus lines of girls performed the energetic dance.

TRIBAL DANCE: These traditional African dances, often performed to the beat of a drum, are important parts of many ceremonies, both joyful (weddings and coming-of-age celebrations) and sad (funerals). Tribal dances help to unite and uplift the community.

LIMBO: The limbo was created in the Caribbean Islands. Performers have to dance under a horizontal pole without touching it or losing their balance. The pole is lowered after each round until one limbo champion dancer remains.

FLAMENCO: With its roots in small villages of the Andalusia region in Spain, flamenco is a passionate style of music and dance with a strong, powerful rhythm. Dancers click their fingers and stamp their feet to match the drama of the guitar music.

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