What is a frozen environment?

The Arctic is a cold and harsh place to inhabit. 'Arctic comes from the Greek word for bear: Arktos. It alludes to the constellations in the northern sky of the Arctic-'Ursa Minor (Little Bear) and 'Ursa Major (Great Bear). Arctic is home to many animals. The poster child of the Arctic is the polar bear. But there are a range of other animals that brave this landscape where the temperatures plummet way below sub-zero. Let's read up on a few of them.

Polar bear

 The polar bear is perhaps the mascot of the Arctic Found throughout the Arctic region, the polar bear is the largest carnivore on land. It also has no natural predators and lives in remote, coastal regions. The Latin name of the Arctic's top predator is Ursus maritimus which means "sea bear." They are very good swimmers and have thick body fat and water-repellent coat that keeps them insulated from the cold. They depend on sea ice for their survival. They are about seven to eight feet long and have strong legs and flattened feet Males are seen to be larger than the females. The webbing between their toes helps with swimming and walking on ice. Their diet consists largely of seals.

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What makes country Georgia special?

Georgia is a country located at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia. It is part of the Caucasus region, bound by the Black Sea, with Russia. Armenia, and Azerbaijan as its neighbouring countries. Even though it is quite small, the country has a lot to offer. It boasts of ancient cities, vibrant culture, and breathtaking landscapes. It is also referred to as 'Sakartvelo', as Georgians call themselves Kartavelians- meaning "land where Kartavelis Live".

The Georgian kingdom has been under the hegemony of various regional powers, including the Mongols, the Ottoman Empire, and various dynasties of Persia. It was later invaded and annexed by the Soviet Union until the country got its independence in the early 1990s. Tbilisi is the current capital and largest city. It gets its name from an old Georgian word "tbili" which means "warm". This old town features narrow streets and a variety of architectural styles, reflecting the influences of the various empires. making it feel like a journey through time. Most of the architecture consists of churches. monasteries with fine metalwork representing the Byzantine style

Georgian is the official language spoken, which is one of the oldest languages in the world. Strongly influenced by the Greek and Persian, Georgian evolved around 5th century. The interesting fact about the language is that it does not use gender or capital letters. It has 33 alphabets, with many dialects. Other Caucasian languages are also spoken in minority.

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How do crystals form?

Rocks are mixtures of different minerals. All minerals are crystals, but not all crystals are minerals. These solid substances are found naturally in the ground. But do we know how they are formed?

How do crystals form?

Scientifically speaking, the term "crystal" refers to any solid that has an ordered chemical structure. This means that its parts are arranged in a precisely ordered pattern, like bricks in a wall. The "bricks" can be cubes or more complex shapes. I'm an Earth scientist and a teacher, so I spend a lot of time thinking about minerals. These are solid substances that are found naturally in the ground and can't be broken down further into different materials other than their constituent atoms. Rocks are mixtures of different minerals. All minerals are crystals, but not all crystals are minerals.

Most rock shops sell mineral crystals that occur in nature. One is pyrite, which is known as fool's gold because it looks like real gold. Some shops also feature showy, human-made crystals such as bismuth, a natural element that forms crystals when it is melted and cooled.

Why and how crystals form

Crystals grow when molecules that are alike get close to each other and stick together, forming chemical bonds that act like Velcro between atoms. Mineral crystals cannot just start forming spontaneously - they need special conditions and a nucleation site to grow on. A nucleation site can be a rough edge of rock or a speck of dust that a molecule bumps into and sticks to, starting the crystallization chain reaction. At or near the Earth's surface, many molecules are dissolved in water that flows through or over the ground. If there are enough molecules in the water that are alike, they will separate from the water as solids - a process called precipitation. If they have a nucleation site, they will stick to it and start to form crystals. Rock salt, which is actually a mineral called halite, grows this way. So does another mineral called travertine, which sometimes forms flat ledges in caves and around hot springs, where water causes chemical reactions between the rock and the air. You can make "salt stalactites" at home by growing salt crystals on a string. In this experiment, the string is the nucleation site. When you dissolve Epsom salts in water and lower a string into it, then leave it for several days, the water will slowly evaporate and leave the Epsom salts behind. As that happens, salt crystals precipitate out of the water and grow crystals on the string. Many places in the Earth's crust are hot enough for rocks to melt into magma. As that magma cools down, mineral crystals grow from it, just like water freezing into ice cubes. These mineral crystals form at much higher temperatures than salt or travertine precipitating out of water.

What crystals can tell scientists

Earth scientists can learn a lot from different types of crystals. For example, the presence of certain mineral crystals in rocks can reveal the rocks' age. This dating method is called geochronology - literally, measuring the age of materials from the Earth. One of the most valued mineral crystals for geochronologists is zircon, which is so durable that it quite literally stands the test of time. The oldest zircon ever found come from Australia and are about 4.3 billion years old - almost as old asour planet itself. Scientists use the chemical changes recorded within zircon as they grew as a reliable "clock" to figure out how old the rocks containing them are some crystals, including zircon, have growth rings, like the rings of a tree, that form when layers of molecules accumulate as the mineral grows. These rings can tell scientists all kinds of things about the environment in which they grew. For example, changesin pressure, temperature and magma composition can all result in growth rings. Sometimes mineral crystals grow as high pressure and temperatures within the Earth's crust change rocks from one type to another in a process called metamorphism. This process causes the elements and chemical bonds in the rock to rearrange themselves into new crystal structures. Lots of spectacular crystals grow in this way, including garnet, kyanite and staurolite.

Amazing forms

When a mineral precipitates from water or crystallizes from magma, the more space it has to grow, the bigger it can become. There is a cave in Mexico full of giant gypsum crystals, some of which are 40 feet (12 meters) long - the size of telephone poles. Especially showy mineral crystals are also valuable as gemstones for jewellery once they are cut into new shapes and polished. The highest price ever paid for a gemstone was $71.2 million for the CTF Pink Star diamond, which went up for auction in 2017 and sold in less than five minutes. (The author works at University of Montana.) THE CONVERSATION

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What is the "wall of humanity"?

The Wall of Humanity' is a noble initiative where people leave their old clothes, toys, books, furniture and other usable household items near a designated wall which may later be collected by the needy. The concept originated in Iran in 2015. At the time, Iran's economy was in bad shape and people with limited means were finding it tough to deal with the harsh Iranian winter. That's when some youths in the city of Mashhad came up with the idea of helping the poor in a manner which would not make them feel embarrassed.

"Leave what you don't need, take what you do"

They began to hang their old clothes on the city walls and it soon became a trend known as 'Deewar-e-Meherbani. A similar campaign was started in Pakistan by a young boy, which came to known as 'Deewar-e-Insaniyat. It included donations of food, clothes, medicines and books for the needy.

In India this concept first immerged in form of 'Neki ki Deewar in Bhilwara, Rajasthan. Today, similar such walls of humanity have sprung up in dozens of Indian cities including Mumbai, Chandigarh, Mysore, Allahabad, Pune, Nagpur, Nashik, Aurangabad, Bhopal.  

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Every continent has a point hardest to reach from the coast of a landmass, either due to tough terrain or untraversable routes, or sheer distance from the coast. A pole of inaccessibility (not to be confused with the North and South Poles), is the point on any continent that is hardest to reach from the coast. There is one on every continent and a couple in the middle of the ocean! The Arctic pole of inaccessibility is a few hundred kilometres from the North Pole. Since there is no landmass so far north, the pole is calculated as the northernmost point that is furthest from land. Like the North Pole, it is located on the shifting pack ice of the northern Arctic Sea. The spot in Eurasia that is furthest from the ocean is located north of Ürümqi in northwest China, over 2,400km from the coast in the middle of desert. Both the North American an South American poles as well as the African pole are located near small towns. Two are in the midst of dense jungle and all three are over 1,760km from the nearest coast.  Australian's remotest point is only 900 km from the nearest coast, in the northern Territory.

The Southern pole of inaccessibility (750 km from the South Pole) has a Russian research station built there in 1958. Also known as the Oceanic pole of inaccessibility, Point Nemo, in the South Pacific Ocean, is over 1,400 nautical miles from the three closest islands.

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Who is a citizen journalist, and can you be one?

Have a smart phone with a good camera? You can get a scoop if you are at the right spot at the right time. Nowadays, newspapers and TV channels encourage ordinary people to actively participate in news-making by requesting them to send reports, videos and photographs of incidents taking place where they live. This is called citizen journalism or participatory journalism. Citizens post comments on news sites and blogs, and write letters to the editor. Citizen journalists perform the important task of pointing out errors and bias in media reports. They may even land a 'scoop', getting to the breaking news before the media, by virtue of being on the spot at the right time! Reports featuring celebrities and politicians antics, police misbehaviour or even footage of crimes in progress, are often the result of citizen journalism. Terrorist bombings, natural disasters and major accidents have also been covered extensively by citizen journalists. Citizen journalism has been possible because of the easy availability of high-quality mobile cameras and recorders, as well as the reach of social media. Any incident is capable of going viral' on the Internet in a matter of minutes.

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How are plants and animals named?

Binomial nomenclature is the standard naming convention used in modern society, and applies to Latin identification of species too.

Loxodonta africana, Panthera tigris, Nelumbo nucifera. Tamarindus indica these are not magical spells - you know these names better as the African elephant, tiger, lotus and tamarind respectively. Every living being on earth, be it an animal, bird, insect or plant is given a two-part scientific name in the Latin language. The system of identification is called binomial nomenclature. It was devised by a Swedish naturalist named Carl Linnaeus in 1753. An internationally agreed-upon set of rules govem the application of binomial nomenclature. The system helps scientists worldwide to discuss the various innumerable species without confusion.A species is one of the most basic units of biological classification. Each species has a unique name. The first capitalised part of the name indicates the genus to which the organism belongs and the second part identifies the species within the genus. The name is usually printed in italics. Part of the name may describe the organism (for example, 'domesticus’ indicates a domesticated species). It may indicate the name of its discoverer, for example, Abies fraseri is a fir tree named after a John Fraser, a Scottish botanist named John Fraser who discovered the tree species.

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What’s intraspecific competition?


Competition occurs everywhere, be it among peers or siblings. Even in the wild. Competition in the ecology is considered a negative interaction and happens when resources are limited. An ecological interaction in which competition occurs between members of the same species, as they compete for limited resources (for survival and reproduction), is called intraspecific competition.

This occurs when the niches overlap, that is, when the members use the same resources and the resources become limited. In the case of animals, the resources induce  food. water, territory and mates. For plants, the resources they compete for include light, water, root space and minerals.

Competition can be categorised into two-intraspecific and interspecific. The former occurs between individuals of different species. The latter, as explained, occurs between individuals of the same species. And as such, this competition is more intense as they are competing for the same niche! Here the animals are using the same resource which is in limited supply. And the better the competitor, the better are the chances of survival.

This form of competition can further be classified into scramble and contest. Scramble competition is when individuals depend on declining available resources even as the number of competitors increases. This is an indirect form of competition. The contest or interference competition is rather a direct form of competition and here the competitors defend the resources from others.

What happens to a species when there is intraspecific completion?

Intraspecific completion directly impacts the species and suppresses its growth. For instance, the young ones of certain species can take longer to mature in crowded conditions. When there is a high population density, the number of young ones the members of the species can produce decreases. Further, it is often seen that when there is a high population density, many juvenile animals will move away from the regions in which they were born.

This is because they could find territories with more resources and less competition. This dispersal phase can also be detrimental as there is no surety that they will find sufficient resources. They also risk predation as they traverse unfamiliar territories.

It also affects the population size. This is because when there is a high population density, growth is affected, fecundity (the biologic capacity to reproduce) is suppressed and survival is impacted. As such the population starts declining. Once the population has lowered, fecundity starts getting better and survival chances increase. The population then starts growing.

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In the rich tapestry of Shakespearean plays, there exists a character who, despite its comedic antics, embodies far more depth and significance than meets the eye - the Shakespearean fool. Distinguishing this character from a clown isn't merely a matter of costumes and gags; it delves into their roles and impact within society. The Shakespearean fool, unlike a traditional clown, possessed a multifaceted role. Such characters were not just jesters for entertainment but often served as insightful commentators, revealing truths about other characters and situations through wit, irony, and satire. They often disguised their wisdom within their humorous dialogues, speaking uncomfortable truths that others dared not vocalise.


Types of Shakespearean Fools

In the Bard's theatricalmasterpieces, the depiction of fools transcends a singular archetype, offering a spectrum of characters that exemplify diverse facets of wit, wisdom, and societal critique. One such variant is the "clown," a character like the Fool in King Lear or Feste in Twelfth Night. They skilfully interweave jests and puns with profound insights, often using humour to shield poignant observations on the world around them. Their seemingly light-hearted banter belies a deep understanding of the underlying truths of the society they inhabits.  Contrasting the down is the 'wise fool', epitomised by character such as touchstone in as you like it. These figures posses an innate preceptiveness that belies their outward Appreance of buffoonery.  Their playful antics serve as a tool to unravel the hypocrisies and challenge conventional wisdom. In addition, the "moral fool" emerges in characters like Edgar disguised as Poor Tom in King Lear. These individuals adopt a guise of madness or folly to navigate perilous circumstances. Through their seemingly irrational behaviour

Court jesters  

Court jesters were the predecessors of the Shakespearean fool, and held a pivotal position in the monacrch's courts across the world. Beyond providing amusement, they acted as truth-tellers in a world where criticising those in power was perilous.


The iconic attire of a courtjester from its unique cap with bells and colourful costumes were symbols of their privilege to talk and mock without the fear of punishment. Beyond playing the role of injecting levity into a situation these comics possess a very rare privilege-free speech.

Comedy in the contemporary world Connecting the iconic Shakespearean archetype to modern stand-up comics unveils a similar underlying principle. Many contemporary stand-up comics, akin to the English playwright's stock character, use humour as a medium for societal commentary. However, they do not don a garb that could help them evade punishment for speaking truth to power or even expressing their personal opinions on a sensitive tonic that has rattled society.

The social impact By dressing reality in humour, comedy invites audiences to reflect on society's shortcomings, absurdities, and hypocrisies. It's a mirror held up to society, making us laugh while revealing uncomfortable truths. Challenging authority and societal norms provides a space for dissent and fosters critical thinking. In essence, the Shakespearean fool, the court jesters of history, and the stand-up comics of today share a common thread - they harness the power of comedy to illuminate truth.The laughter they induce in the guise of entertainment acts as a vehicle to convey profound insights, provoke contemplation, and challenge societal norms. As we laugh along, we also find ourselves introspecting, confronting uncomfortable realities, and perhaps, contemplating the change we wish to see in the world.

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How to taste a rainbow with your ears?

If you ever listen deeply to a song on your headphones and focus intensely, you might sometimes see colours emerging in your mind that align with the songs mood or pace.

The science of perception

 Perception is highly variable. As human beings, our range of perception evolved to exclude the nanoscale and macroscale, and we learned to perceive only "medium-sized objects moving at medium speeds". We, as evolutionary organisms, have developed brains that understand only what we need in order to function in the world. And that means our tools of sensory perception are cultivated and specialised according to our domain of operation. We're perception specialists. And specialists can only ever handle a narrow dimension. But here's the good news dimension. But here's the good news: this doesn't have to limit our ability to put our extinction tools of preception to much better use and produce a much more lucid mental model of our reality.

Synaesthesia is the ability of brains to create collaboration between our memories and the sensory regions; here, sights, sounds, colours, tastes, shapes all interact to produce cross-integrated modes of perception - you can hear in colour, taste sights, see sounds, and all that jazz, as per Sussex-University research.

The combinatorial strategy

A well-documented tool of information-processing and storage is Mnemonics a mental tool that help us remember things more easily. Mnemonics employ a similar mechanism to synaesthesia. It works on the same principle of interconnecting concepts and associating new objects with pre-existing memories.

Any higher level of perception and information-processing seems to require a combinatorial strategy. Given that our perception is limited by the bandwidth of our senses, it becomes all the more useful - if not imperative - that we make efforts to increase interaction between the brain's domains and sensory inputs to produce a more cohesive and comprehensive view of the world.

Disinhibited feedback theory

 Neurobiologist J. Neufeld believes that the brains of synaesthetes are not much different from that of your everyday friend. But synaesthetic sensations can occur when the barriers between our sensory-processing regions of our brain recede or fall away. In this state of disinhibition, cognitive signals flow more freely between and along our sensory hierarchies and neural pathways. Thus, an optical stimulus (an object or word we see or read) might trigger or bleed into the olfactory (smell-sensing) cortex, producing a sensation of fragrance or odour associated with the word or object.

How does it work?

Synaesthesia is about the interaction between domains of your brain that hitherto worked in isolation. It's collaborative, integrative, interactive. It seems to fortify or strengthen a perception by combining more layers of sensory input in its formation. Like an artist fully recreates a face by accreting dabs of paint of varied shades to define each contour. Like a lump of sugar dissolves fully into a cup of tea to make it sweet. Like you find a joke hilarious because you've processed the punchline simultaneously in two different dimensions of perception the literal, and the ticklish nonsensical - and, therefore, the double-entendre shocks you into laughter.

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What is sustainable transport?

As the UN observes World Sustainable Transport Day on November 26, we take a look at what it means for Indian cities

All of us hate traffic jams. A person living in Mumbai spends an average of 9 days every year just being stuck in traffic, according to the India Traffic Report. 2019. There is a lot that citizens, like you and me, can do to change this Sustainable transport, according to the United Nations, can ease the pain of commuting through cities for everyone, including those with special needs.

Public transport

There are over 34 crore motor vehicles on Indian roads now, compared to a mere 14 crore in 2011 While the number of vehicles keeps growing meterorically, there aren't enough roads and parking spaces to accommodate all of them. The result -long winding traffic craints, parking problem , and a spike in road accidents.

At least one road accident was reported within every three minutes in India in 2022. A total of 1.68 lakh lives were lost. Despite all the data, faster bikes and bigger SUVs continue to be the aspirational purchases for the indian public, encouraged by loans and regulatory easements provided by the government. Mobility experts say public transport is the one and only panacea to this problem. it will help reduce road accidents, reduce carbon emissions, and resolve the space crunch that we are facing on roads and parking lots. But in the current form, public transport in India is plagued by many challenges.

Challenges to public transport. While policymakers keep pushing us to use public transport regularly, the fact remains that most of our casting systems are already full and overburdened. The Mumbai local trains, for instance, carry a whopping 80 lakh passengers a day By comparison, the local trains in Chennai ferry about 25 lakh Cities invested heavily in metro mil to reduce the burden on existing systems, and provide connectivity to new areas. While the public uptake has been encouraging, last-mile connectivity remains a challenge Last-mile connectivity means ensuring passengers have a reliable mode of commute from metro stations to their final destination. Providing rental or free cycles, ensuring metro stations are located near bus stands, commercial junctions, providing shuttle bus services, are some options that are being explored for last-mile connectivity on a trial-and-error basis. While these efforts are yet to bear fruit, lessons are being learnt across cities for implementation on a wider scale.

Pedestrians ignored

 Indian cities are fast becoming a nightmare for pedestrians. The Indian Road Congress has clearly laid out guidelines on the size of footpaths to be laid based on the size and category of roads. However, these norms are constantly flouted. Houses cutting into footpaths to build driveways and shops and illegally parked vehicles encroaching walking spaces are a common sight across our cities today.

A long-term study by IIT Madras showed that between 2009 and 2017, 80% of road accidents in Chennai involved pedestrians on footpaths or at road crossings. Since then, Chennai has tried to popolarise the concept of pedestrian plazas, by promoting big, dedicated walkways in various parts of the city. The initiative has been reasonably successful.

Electric vehicles

After walking and public transport, electric vehicles are the next best bet. While they do not remote universal access, they do mitigate the impact of vehicular and public transport, electric vehicles are the next best bet. While they do not promote universal access, they do mitigate the impact of vehicular pollution on the environment. Still, concerns remain as most of the electricity generated today in the country comes from burning dirty coal. The disposal of EV batteries-which are toxic to the environment is also a concern.

Sustainable transport is about building systems that can be used by anybody and everybody. It has to be affordable for the poor, accessible for the disabled, and seamless for the busy office-goers. As citizens, it is our duty to push the envelope with policymakers to make sustainable transport a reality in our cities.

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What is a 3D printed robotic hands?


Researchers have succeeded in printing robotic hands with bones, ligaments and tendons for the first time. Using a new laser scanning technique, the new technology enables the use of different polymers.

Additive manufacturing or 3D printing is the construction of a 3D object from a 3D digital model. The technology behind this has been advancing at great pace and the number of materials that can be used have also expanded reasonably. Until now, 3D printing was limited to fast-curing plastics. The use of slow-curing plastics has now been made possible thanks to a technology developed by researchers at ETH Zurich and a MIT spin-off U.S. start-up, Inhabit. This has resulted in successfully 3D printing robotic hands with bones, ligaments and tendons. The researchers from Switzerland and the U.S. have jointly published the technology and their applications in the journal Nature.

Return to original state

 In addition to their elastic properties that enable the creation of delicate structures and parts with cavities as required, the slow-curing thiolene polymers also return to their original state much faster after bending, making them ideal for the likes of ligaments in robotic hands.

The stiffness of thiolenes can also be fine-tuned as per our requirements to create soft robots. These soft robots will not only be better-suited to work with humans, but will also be more adept at handling delicate and fragile goods.

Scanning, not scraping

In 3D printers, objects are typically produced layer by layer. This means that a nozzle deposits a given material in viscous form and a UV lamp then cures each layer immediately. This method requires a device that scrapes off surface irregularities after each curing step.

While this works for fast-curing plastics, it would fail with slow-curing polymers like thiolenes and epoxies as they would merely gum up the scraper. The researchers involved therefore developed a 3D printing technology that took into account the unevenness when printing the next layer, rather than smoothing out uneven layers. They achieved this using a 3D laser scanner that checked each printed layer for irregularities immediately.

This advancement in 3D printing technology would provide much-needed advantages as the resulting objects not only have better elastic properties, but are also more robust and durable. Combining soft, elastic, and rigid materials would also become much more simpler with this technology.

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How cow dung is very beneficial?

Cow dung has several uses - as fuel, mosquito repellent, thermal insulator, and even as a component in mud brick housing. But, its most common and popular use is perhaps as manure. As a natural agricultural fertilizer, such manure eliminates the use of harmful chemicals, keeping the soil healthy. You may also have heard of vermicomposting where the likes of earthworms consume organic waste and excrete what we can use as manure. But these aren't the only creatures whose poop have their uses. Come, let's find out more about this.

Whale poop

Whales are at the top of the food pyramid, meaning these large creatures play a huge role in keeping their marine ecosystem going. In fact, so huge that even their poop is important. Whales feed on deep sea creatures and move to the surface to breathe and And this poop is loaded with nutrients such as phosphorus. What whales do is essentially bring nutrients from the deep sea to the ocean surface. Phytoplankton and algae consume whale poop, and these organisms become food to zooplankton such as krill. Zooplankton, in turn, are food for the likes of fish and birds. And, through the latter, nutrients are carried from water to land.


The poop of birds (particularly seabirds) and bats is called guano. Just like whale poop, guano too is rich in nutrients - such as nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, and potassium. Around the mid-19th Century, it was discovered that "nitrogen added to soil would drastically improve crop yields - particularly in the form of guano". Gradually over the years, its popularity spread the world over. This organic fertilizer can be used for raising vegetables, nut- and fruit-bearing trees, and even for ornamental plants and lawns.


Frass is the poop of insect larvae. Frass deposits on soil are said to have a great impact on soil fertility due to their high nutrient and labile carbon (which breaks down easily and is nutritious) content. Frass also contains "small concentrations of micronutrients", which may further be beneficial for crops. Since the world is contemplating ways to increase protein-rich insect consumption among humans, reports suggest that interest in increasing insect population is high. Which could also mean increase in frass availability.

Did you know?

Since there are "huge declines in whale, seabird and fish populations", the movement of nutrients from water and land "has slowed". Researchers "reckon that only a quarter as much phosphorus makes it to surface waters today compared with the past. And the flow of phosphorus to land has nearly stopped- at just 4 percent of historic levels". But this scenario is still reversible if we focus on restoring species, learn to share the planet with them- rather than locking them up in zoos or even confining them to protected areas and let them roam the world.

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What is the meaning, origin and usage of word ‘Dangle’?

Meaning: The word dangle refers to hanging or swinging loosely. It is also used to indicate offering an enticing incentive to someone.

Origin: The word has been around since the 1590s. It is probably of Scandinavian origin and can be compared to Danish dangle, Swedish dangla, Norwegian dangla. The sense of "carry suspended so as to swing or sway" is from the 1610s.

After nearly 200 years in which the word was in average use, it has enjoyed more popularity in the 21st Century, leading to greater usage of the word.

Usage: The teacher dangled some offers and got the students to work harder on her subject.

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What is the meaning, origin and usage of word ‘Embellish’?

Meaning: This transitive verb refers to decorating something or beautifying an object with interesting additions.

Origin: Both embellish and the French word 'bel’(meaning beautiful) originate from the same Latin root bellus. The first known use of this word can be traced back to the 14th Century.

Usage: Grandma likes to embellish her knitting by hiding secret messages in the pattern.

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